Aristotle was greatly respected by the king and his son and paid him generously for the work he did for the court. When Alexander grew up and succeeded his father as the King, Aristotle asked permission to go back to Athens to start his own school. Thus, going back to Athens in BC, that is what he did.
The students and members of the school recorded their findings in form of manuscripts which made a huge collection of written work making one of the greatest and most valuable libraries. His major writings include records of scientific knowledge, dialogues, systematic works and various observations.
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Hawley, Katherine Katherine Jane. Keywords Aristotle. Metadata Show full item record. In particular, number is understood as a countable plurality and is always a number of something. I show that as a consequence the related concept of counting is based on units. Time presents itself as a perfect test case for this project because Aristotle defines time as a kind of number but also considers it as a continuum.
However, in the case of mathematical objects, there are three important difficulties. First, if physical objects are the objects of mathematical understanding and satisfy the standard definitions of line, circle, etc. Although these two problems are distinct, Aristotle may hold that this failure is at least partly responsible for the failure of mathematical objects to have the mathematical properties we study.
Platonic Forms fail in a third way.
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A fourth problem is not explicitly stated by Aristotle, but is clearly a presupposition of his discussion. To solve the problems of separation and precision, contemporary philosophers such as Speusippus and possibly Plato posited a universe of mathematical entities which are perfect instances of mathematical properties, adequately multiple for any theorem we wish to prove, and separate from the physical or perceptible world. Aristotle calls them mathematicals or intermediates , because they are intermediate between the Forms and physical objects, in as much as they are perfect, eternal, and unchanging like the Forms, but multiple like physical objects cf.
This solution is the ancestor of many versions of platonism in mathematics. Aristotle's rejection of intermediates involves showing that their advocates are committed to an unwieldy multiplicity of mathematical universes, at least one corresponding to each mathematical science, whether kinematics, astronomy, or geometry.
However, he also sets out to show that such ontologies are not merely pleonastic, but also that an alternative account can be given free of all the difficulties mentioned. In other words, Aristotle's strategy is best seen as diffusing some versions of platonism. Aristotle also rejects a compromise as merely compounding this difficulty, the view that either Forms or intermediates are immanent in things separate but coextensive , since these different worlds will now have to exist bundled together.
Principal sources are the Posterior Analytics , De Anima iii. It is also clear that this usage relates to logical discussions in the Topics of definitions where one can speak of adding a term or deleting a term from an expression and seeing what one gets as a result. Aristotle starts with the class of perceptible or physical magnitudes.
The examination of these is a part of physics cf. Physics iii. The ontological status of these does not concern him, but we may suppose that they consitute the category of quantities: the bodies, surfaces, edges, corners, places, and times, sounds, etc. In the Analytics, where the notion of matter is absent, Aristotle begins with a particular geometrical perceptible figure. What is removed is its particularity and all that comes with this, including its being perceptible.
What is left then is a universal of some sort. Aristotle also does not seem to think in this work that there is any conflict between the plurality problem and thinking of all terms in a mathematical deduction as universals. However, since he allows that a term can be a very complex expression, it can designate a rich complex for which there would probably be no corresponding Form in a Platonic theory. Elsewhere, Aristotle usually seems to mean that the attributes not a part of the science are removed.
The Mathematics of Light: Aristotle
What is left may be particular, a quasi-fictional entity. It is the status of this entity which leads to much controversy. Is it a representation in the soul or is it the perceptible object treated in a special way? Ancient and medieval readers tended to take the former approach in their interpretation of Aristotle, that the object left is a stripped down representation with only the required properties.
Mueller and neo-Platonic foundations for these interpretations of mathematics, such as Proclus in his commentary on Euclid. Most modern readers, perhaps influenced by the critiques of Berkeley and Hume against the first position and certainly less committed to neo-Platonism, take the second approach.
Plato reimagines abstraction as the theory of forms
The objects studied by mathematical sciences are perceptible objects treated in a special way, as a perceived representation, whether as a diagram in the sand or an image in the imagination. Furthermore, perhaps as a response to Frege's devastating critique of psychologism and Husserl's first attempt at a psychological account of arithmetic, some have suggested that Aristotle has no need for a special faculty of abstracting.
Rather the mind is able to consider the perceived object without some of its properties, such as being perceived, being made of sand, marble, bronze, etc. However, this is analogous to the logical manipulation of definitions, by considering terms with or without certain additions. Hence, Aristotle will sometimes call the material object, the mathematical object by adding on.
As a convenience, the mind conceives of this as if the object were just that.
On this view, abstraction is no more and no less psychological than inference. Conceptually, we might think of the process as the mind rearranging the ontological structure of the object. As a substantial artifact, what-it-is, the sand box has certain properties essentially. The figure drawn may be incidental to what-it-is, i. In treating the object as the figure drawn, being made of sand is incidental to it.
This is the concept which does most of the work for Aristotle.
In his discussions of precision, Aristotle states that those sciences which have more properties removed are more precise. Arithemetic, about units, is more precise than geometry, since a point is a unit having position. A science of kinematics geometry of moving magnitudes where all motion is uniform motions is more precise than a science that includes non-uniform motions in addition, and a science of non-moving magnitudes geometry is more precise than one with moving magnitudes.
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Aristotle solves the separability problem with a kind of fictionalism. The language and practice of mathematicians is legitimate because we are able to conceive of perceptible magnitudes in ways that they are not. The only basic realities for Aristotle remain substances, however we are to conceive them.
A primary characteristic of substances is that they are separate. It is a subject in our science in our discourse in the science. The mental and logical mechanism by which we accomplish this is the core of Aristotle's strategy in diffusing platonisms. The English adverb is normally followed by a noun phrase. In the case where we examine or study an object X qua Y or X in-the-respect-that X is Y , we study the consequences that follow from something's being an Y.
In other words, Y determines the logical space of what we study. If X is a bronze triangle a perceptible magnitude , to study X qua bronze will be to examine bronze and the properties that accrue to something that is bronze. To study X qua triangle is to study the properties that accrue to a triangle. Unless it follows from something's being a triangle that it must be bronze, the property of being bronze will not appear in one's examination.
For example, Aristotle says De anima iii. We can study a perceptible triangle qua triangle because it is a triangle. For convenience, we can call this principle qua -realism. We begin with perceptible magnitudes. These are volumes, surfaces, edges, and corners. They change in position and size. They are made of some material and are the quantities of substances and their interactions. The volumes, surfaces, and edges have shape.
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Times and corners do not. Different sciences treat different perceptible magnitudes qua different things. Moreover, since there are many perceptible magnitudes, there will be enough, qua line, to prove any theorem that involves lines. The plurality problem is trivially solved. The science will speak of Y. This too will not interfere with mathematical practice and so will not violate non-revisionism.